Where do I find information that explains the CA Top Secret security algorithm search sequence (ie user id, profile, ALL record)?
The search order is determined by the AUTH control option setting. See chapter 2 of the CA Top Secret Control Options Guide, section titled 'AUTH Merge Records for Search' for what each setting does. A TSS MODIFY can be issued to see the AUTH setting.
See the CA Top Secret User Guide, chapter titled 'The Resource Access Security Validation Algorithm' for how the security algorithm works in CA Top Secret.