In this particular case the problem bulletin was MS11-025 / Q2467173 / vcredist2467173_x86.exe. However, this could happen with any bulletin. When reviewing the return code, you see it failed with 5100. The next step in troubleshooting this type of problem is to manually run the security update to see what it says. When doing so, you get something like the following:
The operating system is not allowing you to install the update. This is due to an older version of the product.
We can see that our detection is accurate and that file is out of date, but the OS won't allow you to install that update. I would recommend uninstalling the 2010 redist from Control Panel and then installing that new version (or just a later one entirely if 2010 is not specifically required). Uninstalling and then installing the later version should bring the files inline with the version the OS thinks is installed.