Use case: Platform or solution upgrade failures. Servicepack, hotfix install failures
At the installed products page of SIM, click settings in the top right. Then click the box for "Enable Windows installer logging."
The install logs will be saved into \Programdata\Symantec\SMP\Logs\
The files will be labeled install. Each msi that is used by SIM will list it's exit codes in these logs.
If the failure cause is not readily apparent, see Microsoft's article outlining MSI exit codes. https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/aa376931(v=vs.85).aspx