For the first issue, we currently as of CCS 11.5.2 SCU 2017-1 only support Docker v1.11.x.
For the job to resolve assets the "docker" make sure the version is set correctly. See example screen shot below.
For the second error about running "docker ps --quiet" on the target system please run the following command
sudo usermod -aG docker ccs_svc_acct
Where ccs_svc_acct is the user that is being used for data collection.