The command fails and directs you to check the log C:\oracle\cfgtoollogs\dbua\logs\silent0.log
The C:\oracle\cfgtoollogs\dbua\logs\silent0.log contains the following lines:
Oracle recommends gathering dictionary statistics prior to upgrading the database. Refer to the Upgrade Guide for instructions to gather statistics prior to upgrading the database. Your database has EVENT or _TRACE_EVENT initialization parameters set. Oracle recommends reviewing any defined events prior to upgrade. DBUA will retain these parameters during upgrade. Performing Pre Upgrade UPGRADE_PROGRESS : 1% UPGRADE_PROGRESS : 7% Upgrading Oracle Server The Upgrade Assistant failed in bringing down the Oracle Service for this database. Stop the Oracle Service OracleServiceprotect and then click CONTINUE. The Upgrade Assistant failed in bringing down the Oracle Service for this database. Stop the Oracle Service OracleServiceprotect and then click CONTINUE. Upgrade failed due to running the step "Upgrading Oracle Server" Could not restore the database service due the error: DIM-00077: Failed to change service configuration. O/S-Error: (OS 5) Access is denied. Error creating or opening key, OS Error = 1 You may have one of the applications such as Services panel, Registry Editor, and Performance Monitor open. To work around this problem, restart the computer and manually re-create the Oracle Database service using the ORADIM utility. Following commands can be used for reference: D:\oracle\product\220.127.116.11\db_1\bin\oradim.exe -edit -ORACLE_HOME D:\oracle\product\18.104.22.168\db_1 -sid PROTECT -newsid PROTECT -pfile D:\oracle\product\22.214.171.124\db_1\database\initprotect.ora
The account used to launch the command prompt and the upgrade command does not have enough privileges to stop the oraclePROTECT service during the upgrade process.
Launch the command prompt via "Run as administrator" or ensure the account used has administrator privileges.